Monkeypox: What is it? And Is it a threat in 2022?

Monkeypox: What is it? And Is it a threat in 2022??

After the news that 2 more people have been diagnosed with monkeypox virus in England. The virus was seen in a person who had recently traveled to Nigeria and had contracted the infection. So is it a threat to the world again when we are just about to recover from the Coronavirus? 

Let us know what is Monkeypox


Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease endemic to central and western Africa and most concentrated in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

It is a zoonotic orthopoxvirus that incidentally causes disease in humans similar to smallpox, although with notably lower mortality. Monkeypox is a vesicular-pustular illness that carries a secondary attack rate in the order of 10% in contacts unvaccinated against smallpox. A rare disease that is caused by the monkeypox virus. It was first discovered in 1958. The disease was named as monkeypox because it was first seen in monkeys kept for research and the outbreak was a pox-like disease. The first human case of monkeypox was seen in 1970 in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). 


Monkeypox is from the family: Poxviridae, subfamily: chordopoxvirinae, genus: orthopoxvirus, and species: Monkeypox virus.

The monkeypox virus seems to be quite huge under electron microscopy (200-250 nanometers). Poxviruses are brick-shaped, with a linear double-stranded DNA genome enveloped by a lipoprotein sheath. Poxviruses have all of the required replication, transcription, assembly, and egress proteins in their genome, despite their reliance on host ribosomes for mRNA translation. ​​


Transmission of monkeypox virus occurs when a person comes into contact with the virus from an animal, human, or materials contaminated with the virus. The virus enters the body through broken skin, respiratory tract, or mucous membranes(eyes, nose, or mouth). Bite or scratch, bush meat preparation, direct contact with bodily fluids or lesion material, or indirect contact with lesion material, such as through contaminated bedding, are all possible methods of animal-to-human transmission. Human-to-human methods of transmission include direct contact with body fluids or lesion material, and indirect contact with lesion material, such as through contaminated clothing or linens. 

Signs and Symptoms

The symptoms of monkeypox are similar but milder than the symptoms of smallpox. The incubation period of monkeypox is usually 7-14 days but can range from 5-21 days.

The general symptoms include Fever, Muscle aches, headache, chills, exhaustion, headache, and backache. 

The patient develops a rash about 1 to 3 days, and occasionally longer, after the onset of fever, which usually starts on the face and spreads to other regions of the body.

The stages of lesions progress through the following stages before falling off:

  • Marcules
  • Papules
  • Vesicles
  • Pustules
  • Scabs

The illness typically lasts for 2-4 weeks. In Africa, monkeypox has been shown to cause death in as many as 1 in 10 persons who contract the disease.  

Treatment of the disease is no proven, safe treatment for monkeypox virus infection.